# Hints for SQL users¶

This page is intended to be a guide to new PyTables for users who are used to writing SQL code to access their relational databases. It will cover the most usual SQL statements. If you are missing a particular statement or usage example, you can ask at the PyTables users’ list [1] for it. If you know some examples yourself, you can also write them here!

This page is under development: you can come back frequently to check for new examples. Also, this is no replacement for the User’s Guide [2]; if you don’t read the manual, you’ll be missing lots of features not available in relational databases!

Examples in Python assume that you have imported the PyTables package like this:

import tables


## Creating a new database¶

RDBMs happen to have several syntaxes for creating a database. A usual syntax is:

CREATE DATABASE database_name


In PyTables, each database goes to a different HDF5 [3] file (much like SQLite [4] or MS Access). To create a new HDF5 [3] file, you use the tables.open_file() function with the 'w' mode (which deletes the database if it already exists), like this:

h5f = tables.open_file('database_name.h5', 'w')


In this way you get the h5f PyTables file handle (an instance of the tables.File class), which is a concept similar to a database connection, and a new database_name.h5 file is created in the current directory (you can use full paths here). You can close the handle (like you close the connection) with:

h5f.close()


This is important for PyTables to dump pending changes to the database. In case you forget to do it, PyTables closes all open database handles for you when you exit your program or interactive session, but it is always safer to close your files explicitly. If you want to use the database after closing it, you just call open_file() again, but using the 'r+' or 'r' modes, depending on whether you do or don’t need to modify the database, respectively.

You may use several PyTables databases simultaneously in a program, so you must be explicit on which database you want to act upon (by using its handle).

### A note on concurrency under PyTables¶

Unlike most RDBMs, PyTables is not intended to serve concurrent accesses to a database. It has no protections whatsoever against corruption for different (or even the same) programs accessing the same database. Opening several handles to the same database in read-only mode is safe, though.

## Creating a table¶

PyTables supports some other datasets besides tables, and they’re not arranged in a flat namespace, but rather into a hierarchicalé one (see an introduction to the _ref:object tree <ObjectTreeSection>); however, due to the nature of these recipes, we’ll limit ourselves to tables in the *root group. The basic syntax for table creation under SQL is:

CREATE TABLE table_name (
column_name1 column_type1,
column_name2 column_type2,
...
column_nameN column_typeN
)


### Table descriptions¶

In PyTables, one first describes the structure of a table. PyTables allows you to reuse a description for creating several tables with the same structure, just by using the description object (description_name below) or getting it from a created table. This is specially useful for creating temporary tables holding query results.

You can create a table description using a dictionary:

description_name = {
'column_name1': colum_type1,
'column_name2': colum_type2,
'column_name3': colum_type3,
...
'column_nameN': colum_typeN
}


or a subclass of tables.IsDescription:

class description_name(tables.IsDescription):
column_name1 = colum_type1
column_name2 = colum_type2
column_name3 = colum_type3
...
column_nameN = colum_typeN


Please note that dictionaries are the only way of describing structures with names which cannot be Python identifiers. Also, if an explicit order is desired for colums, it must be specified through the column type declarations (see below), since dictionariy keys and class attributes aren’t ordered. Otherwise, columns are ordered in alphabetic increasing order. It is important to note that PyTables doesn’t have a concept of primary or foreign keys, so relationships between tables are left to the user.

### Column type declarations¶

PyTables supports lots of types (including nested and multidimensional columns). Non-nested columns are declared through instances of tables.Col subclasses (which you can also reuse). These are some correspondences with SQL:

SQL type declaration PyTables type declaration
INTEGER(digits) tables.IntCol(itemsize)
REAL tables.FloatCol()
VARCHAR(length) tables.StringCol(itemsize)
DATE tables.Time32Col()
TIMESTAMP tables.Time64Col()

See a complete description of PyTables types. Note that some types admit different item sizes, which are specified in bytes. For types with a limited set of supported item sizes, you may also use specific subclasses which are named after the type and its precision, e.g. Int32Col for 4-byte (32 bit) item size.

Cells in a PyTables’ table always have a value of the cell type, so there is no NULL. Instead, cells take a default value (zero or empty) which can be changed in the type declaration, like this: col_name = StringCol(10, dflt='nothing') (col_name takes the value 'nothing' if unset). The declaration also allows you to set column order via the pos argument, like this:

class ParticleDescription(tables.IsDescription):
name = tables.StringCol(10, pos=1)
x = tables.FloatCol(pos=2)
y = tables.FloatCol(pos=3)
temperature = tables.FloatCol(pos=4)


## Using a description¶

Once you have a table description description_name and a writeable file handle h5f, creating a table with that description is as easy as:

tbl = h5f.create_table('/', 'table_name', description_name)


PyTables is very object-oriented, and database is usually done through methods of tables.File. The first argument indicates the path where the table will be created, i.e. the root path (HDF5 uses Unix-like paths). The tables.File.create_table() method has many options e.g. for setting a table title or compression properties. What you get back is an instance of tables.Table, a handle for accessing the data in that table.

As with files, table handles can also be closed with tbl.close(). If you want to access an already created table, you can use:

tbl = h5f.get_node('/', 'table_name')


(PyTables uses the concept of node for datasets -tables and others- and groups in the object tree) or, using natural naming:

tbl = h5f.root.table_name


Once you have created a table, you can access (and reuse) its description by accessing the description attribute of its handle.

## Creating an index¶

RDBMs use to allow named indexes on any set of columns (or all of them) in a table, using a syntax like:

CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column_name1, column_name2, column_name3...)


and

DROP INDEX index_name

Indexing is supported in the versions of PyTables >= 2.3 (and in PyTablesPro). However, indexes don’t have names and they are bound to single columns. Following the object-oriented philosophy of PyTables, index creation is a method (tables.Column.create_index()) of a tables.Column object of a table, which you can access trough its cols accessor.

::
tbl.cols.colum_name.create_index()

For dropping an index on a column:

tbl.cols.colum_name.remove_index()


## Altering a table¶

The first case of table alteration is renaming:

ALTER TABLE old_name RENAME TO new_name


This is accomplished in !PyTables with:

h5f.rename_node('/', name='old_name', newname='new_name')


or through the table handle:

tbl.rename('new_name')


A handle to a table is still usable after renaming. The second alteration, namely column addition, is currently not supported in PyTables.

## Dropping a table¶

In SQL you can remove a table using:

DROP TABLE table_name


In PyTables, tables are removed as other nodes, using the tables.File.remove_node() method:

h5f.remove_node('/', 'table_name')


or through the table handle:

tbl.remove()


When you remove a table, its associated indexes are automatically removed.

## Inserting data¶

In SQL you can insert data one row at a time (fetching from a selection will be covered later) using a syntax like:

INSERT INTO table_name (column_name1, column_name2...)
VALUES (value1, value2...)


In PyTables, rows in a table form a sequence, so data isn’t inserted into a set, but rather appended to the end of the sequence. This also implies that identical rows may exist in a table (but they have a different row number). There are two ways of appending rows: one at a time or in a block. The first one is conceptually similar to the SQL case:

tbl.row['column_name1'] = value1
tbl.row['column_name2'] = value2
...
tbl.row.append()


The tbl.row accessor represents a new row in the table. You just set the values you want to set (the others take the default value from their column declarations - see above) and the effectively append the new row. This code is usually enclosed in some kind of loop, like:

row = tbl.row
while some_condition:
row['column_name1'] = value1
...
row.append()


For appending a block of rows in a single shot, tables.Table.append() is more adequate. You just pass a NumPy [5] record array or Python sequence with elements which match the expected columns. For example, given the tbl handle for a table with the ParticleDescription structure described above:

rows = [
('foo', 0.0, 0.0, 150.0),
('bar', 0.5, 0.0, 100.0),
('foo', 1.0, 1.0,  25.0)
]
tbl.append(rows)

# Using a NumPy container.
import numpy
rows = numpy.rec.array(rows)
tbl.append(rows)


### A note on transactions¶

PyTables doesn’t support transactions nor checkpointing or rolling back (there is undo support for operations performed on the object tree, but this is unrelated). Changes to the database are optimised for maximum performance and reasonable memory requirements, which means that you can’t tell whether e.g. tbl.append() has actually committed all, some or no data to disk when it ends.

However, you can force PyTables to commit changes to disk using the flush() method of table and file handles:

tbl.flush()  # flush data in the table
h5f.flush()  # flush all pending data


Closing a table or a database actually flushes it, but it is recommended that you explicitly flush frequently (specially with tables).

## Updating data¶

We’re now looking for alternatives to the SQL UPDATE statement:

UPDATE table_name
SET column_name1 = expression1, column_name2 = expression2...
[WHERE condition]


There are different ways of approaching this, depending on your needs. If you aren’t using a condition, then the SET clause updates all rows, something you can do in PyTables by iterating over the table:

for row in tbl:
row['column_name1'] = expression1
row['column_name2'] = expression2
...
row.update()


Don’t forget to call update() or no value will be changed! Also, since the used iterator allows you to read values from the current row, you can implement a simple conditional update, like this:

for row in tbl:
if condition on row['column_name1'], row['column_name2']...:
row['column_name1'] = expression1
row['column_name2'] = expression2
...
row.update()


There are substantially more efficient ways of locating rows fulfilling a condition. Given the main PyTables usage scenarios, querying and modifying data are quite decoupled operations, so we will have a look at querying later and assume that you already know the set of rows you want to update.

If the set happens to be a slice of the table, you may use the :meth:tables.Table.modify_rows method or its equivalent tables.Table.__setitem__() notation:

rows = [
('foo', 0.0, 0.0, 150.0),
('bar', 0.5, 0.0, 100.0),
('foo', 1.0, 1.0,  25.0)
]
tbl.modifyRows(start=6, stop=13, step=3, rows=rows)
tbl[6:13:3] = rows  # this is the same


If you just want to update some columns in the slice, use the tables.Table.modify_columns() or tables.Table.modify_column() methods:

cols = [
[150.0, 100.0, 25.0]
]
# These are all equivalent.
tbl.modify_columns(start=6, stop=13, step=3, columns=cols, names=['temperature'])
tbl.modify_column(start=6, stop=13, step=3, column=cols[0], colname='temperature')
tbl.cols.temperature[6:13:3] = cols[0]


The last line shows an example of using the cols accessor to get to the desired tables.Column of the table using natural naming and apply setitem on it.

If the set happens to be an array of sparse coordinates, you can also use PyTables’ extended slice notation:

rows = [
('foo', 0.0, 0.0, 150.0),
('bar', 0.5, 0.0, 100.0),
('foo', 1.0, 1.0,  25.0)
]
rownos = [2, 735, 371913476]
tbl[rownos] = rows


for row_id, datum in zip(rownos, rows):
tbl[row_id] = datum


Since you are modifying table data in all cases, you should also remember to flush() the table when you’re done.

## Deleting data¶

Rows are deleted from a table with the following SQL syntax:

DELETE FROM table_name
[WHERE condition]


tables.Table.remove_rows() is the method used for deleting rows in PyTables. However, it is very simple (only contiguous blocks of rows can be deleted) and quite inefficient, and one should consider whether dumping filtered data from one table into another isn’t a much more convenient approach. This is a far more optimized operation under PyTables which will be covered later.

Anyway, using remove_row() or remove_rows() is quite straightforward:

tbl.remove_row(12)  # delete one single row (12)
tbl.remove_rows(12, 20)  # delete all rows from 12 to 19 (included)
tbl.remove_rows(0, tbl.nrows)  # delete all rows unconditionally
tbl.remove_rows(-4, tbl.nrows)  # delete the last 4 rows


The most basic syntax in SQL for reading rows in a table without using a condition is:

SELECT (column_name1, column_name2... | *) FROM table_name


Which reads all rows (though maybe not all columns) from a table. In PyTables there are two ways of retrieving data: iteratively or at once. You’ll notice some similarities with how we appended and updated data above, since this dichotomy is widespread here.

For a clearer separation with conditional queries (covered further below), and since the concept of row number doesn’t exist in relational databases, we’ll be including here the cases where you want to read a known slice or sequence of rows, besides the case of reading all rows.

### Iterating over rows¶

This is similar to using the fetchone() method of a DB cursor in a Python DBAPI [6]-compliant package, i.e. you iterate over the list of wanted rows, getting one row handle at a time. In this case, the handle is an instance of the tables.Row class, which allows access to individual columns as items acessed by key (so there is no special way of selecting columns: you just use the ones you want whenever you want).

This way of reading rows is recommended when you want to perform operations on individual rows in a simple manner, and specially if you want to process a lot of rows in the table (i.e. when loading them all at once would take too much memory). Iterators are also handy for using with the itertools Python module for grouping, sorting and other operations.

For iterating over all rows, use plain iteration or the tables.Table.iterrows() method:

for row in tbl:  # or tbl.iterrows()
do something with row['column_name1'], row['column_name2']...


For iterating over a slice of rows, use the tables.Table.iterrows|Table.iterrows() method:

for row in tbl.iterrows(start=6, stop=13, step=3):
do something with row['column_name1'], row['column_name2']...


For iterating over a sequence of rows, use the tables.Table.itersequence() method:

for row in tbl.itersequence([6, 7, 9, 11]):
do something with row['column_name1'], row['column_name2']...


In contrast with iteration, you can fetch all desired rows into a single container in memory (usually an efficient NumPy [5] record-array) in a single operation, like the fetchall() or fetchmany() methods of a DBAPI cursor. This is specially useful when you want to transfer the read data to another component in your program, avoiding loops to construct your own containers. However, you should be careful about the amount of data you are fetching into memory, since it can be quite large (and even exceed its physical capacity).

You can choose between the Table.read*() methods or the tables.Table.__getitem__() syntax for this kind of reads. The read*() methods offer you the chance to choose a single column to read via their field argument (which isn’t still as powerful as the SQL SELECT column spec).

For reading all rows, use [:] or the tables.Table.read() method:

rows = tbl.read()
rows = tbl[:]  # equivalent


For reading a slice of rows, use [slice] or the tables.Table.read|Table.read() method:

rows = tbl.read(start=6, stop=13, step=3)
rows = tbl[6:13:3]  # equivalent


For reading a sequence of rows, use the tables.Table.read_coordinates() method:

rows = tbl.read_coordinates([6, 7, 9, 11])


Please note that you can add a field='column_name' argument to read*() methods in order to get only the given column instead of them all.

## Selecting data¶

When you want to read a subset of rows which match a given condition from a table you use a syntax like this in SQL:

SELECT column_specification FROM table_name
WHERE condition


The condition is an expression yielding a boolean value based on a combination of column names and constants with functions and operators. If the condition holds true for a given row, the column_specification is applied on it and the resulting row is added to the result.

In PyTables, you may filter rows using two approaches: the first one is achieved through standard Python comparisons (similar to what we used for conditional update), like this:

for row in tbl:
if condition on row['column_name1'], row['column_name2']...:
do something with row


This is easy for newcomers, but not very efficient. That’s why PyTables offers another approach: in-kernel searches, which are much more efficient than standard searches, and can take advantage of indexing (under PyTables >= 2.3).

In-kernel searches are used through the where methods in Table, which are passed a condition string describing the condition in a Python-like syntax. For instance, with the ParticleDescription we defined above, we may specify a condition for selecting particles at most 1 unit apart from the origin with a temperature under 100 with a condition string like this one:

'(sqrt(x**2 + y**2) <= 1) & (temperature < 100)'


Where x, y and temperature are the names of columns in the table. The operators and functions you may use in a condition string are described in the appendix on condition syntax in the User’s Guide [2].

### Iterating over selected rows¶

You can iterate over the rows in a table which fulfill a condition (a la DBAPI fetchone()) by using the tables.Table.where() method, which is very similar to the tables.Table.iterrows() one discussed above, and which can be used in the same circumstances (i.e. performing operations on individual rows or having results exceeding available memory).

Here is an example of using where() with the previous example condition:

for row in tbl.where('(sqrt(x**2 + y**2) <= 1) & (temperature < 100)'):
do something with row['name'], row['x']...


### Reading selected rows at once¶

Like the aforementioned tables.Table.read(), tables.Table.read_where() gets all the rows fulfilling the given condition and packs them in a single container (a la DBAPI fetchmany()). The same warning applies: be careful on how many rows you expect to retrieve, or you may run out of memory!

Here is an example of using read_where() with the previous example condition:

rows = tbl.read_where('(sqrt(x**2 + y**2) <= 1) & (temperature < 100)')


Please note that both tables.Table.where() and tables.Table.read_where() can also take slicing arguments.

### Getting the coordinates of selected rows¶

There is yet another method for querying tables: tables.Table.get_where_list(). It returns just a sequence of the numbers of the rows which fulfil the given condition. You may pass that sequence to tables.Table.read_coordinates(), e.g. to retrieve data from a different table where rows with the same number as the queried one refer to the same first-class object or entity.

### A note on table joins¶

You may have noticed that queries in PyTables only cover one table. In fact, there is no way of directly performing a join between two tables in PyTables (remember that it’s not a relational database). You may however work around this limitation depending on your case:

• If one table is an extension of another (i.e. it contains additional columns for the same entities), your best bet is to arrange rows of the same entity so that they are placed in the same positions in both tables. For instance, if tbl1 and tbl2 follow this rule, you may do something like this to emulate a natural join:

 for row1 in tbl1.where('condition'):
row2 = tbl2[row1.nrow]
if condition on row2['column_name1'], row2['column_name2']...:
do something with row1 and row2...

(Note that row1 is a Row instance and row2 is a record of the current
flavor.)

• If rows in both tables are linked by a common value (e.g. acting as an identifier), you’ll need to split your condition in one for the first table and one for the second table, and then nest your queries, placing the most restrictive one first. For instance:

SELECT clients.name, bills.item_id FROM clients, bills
WHERE clients.id = bills.client_id and clients.age > 50 and bills.price > 200


could be written as:

for client in clients.where('age > 50'):
# Note that the following query is different for each client.
for bill in bills.where('(client_id == %r) & (price > 200)' % client['id']):
do something with client['name'] and bill['item_id']


In this example, indexing the client_id column of bills could speed up the inner query quite a lot. Also, you could avoid parsing the inner condition each time by using condition variables:

for client in clients.where('age > 50'):
for bill in bills.where('(client_id == cid) & (price > 200)', {'cid': client['id']}):
do something with client['name'] and bill['item_id']


## Summary of row selection methods¶

 All rows Range of rows Sequence of rows Condition Iterative access __iter__(), iterrows() iterrows(range) itersequence() where(condition) Block access [:], read() [range], read(range) readCoordinates() read_where(condition)

## Sorting the results of a selection¶

Do you feel like writing this section? Your contribution is welcome!

## Grouping the results of a selection¶

By making use of the itertools.groupby() utility, you can group results by field:

group = {} # dictionary to put results grouped by 'pressure'
def pressure_selector(row):
return row['pressure']
for pressure, rows_grouped_by_pressure in itertools.groupby(mytable, pressure_selector):
group[pressure] = sum((r['energy'] + r['ADCcount'] for r in rows_grouped_by_pressure))


However, itertools.groupby() assumes the incoming array is sorted by the grouping field. If not, there are multiple groups with the same grouper returned. In the example, mytable thus has to be sorted on pressure, or the last line should be changed to:

group[pressure] += sum((r['energy'] + r['ADCcount'] for r in rows_grouped_by_pressure))
`

 [3] (1, 2) http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5
 [5] (1, 2) http://www.numpy.org